Motherboard- RES(701)

At the beginning, this is my 2nd semester and i choose Research method for my course because i was not good at doing research . So i wanted to study research and my journey was good. I learnt many new things and mostly i got some experience regarding doing research. My tutor  Dr Clare Atkins is such a nice person and she help me a lot and she motivated me  to do my study. she helped me in every thing even i did some mistakes but she never got angry on me and she gave me apologize for that. and i want to thanks her for guiding me. she is such a cheerful tutor and i want to study some more subject. So at glance i want to thanks her for everything and this is our last blog for this session. for this blog, i want to share some important things which is research on “Motherboard”.


The motherboard is a printed circuit board of a computer and it is pre exist on the back side of the computer case. It allocates power to communication to the CPU, RAM and all other Hardware computer components.A motherboard is one the most important part of a computer among other part. It contains several types of components of computer, including CPU, memory, connector for input and output devices and so on.  In addition to circuits, a motherboard contains a number of sockets and slots to connect the other components. Here are the sample photo of motherboard.




Motherboard components are below:

  • Expansion slots (PCI Express, PCI, and AGP)
  • 3-pin case fan connectors
  • Back pane connectors
  • Heat sink
  • 4-Pin (P4) power connector
  • Inductor
  • Capacitor
  • CPU Socket
  • Northbridge
  • Screw hole
  • Memory slot
  • Super I/O
  • Floppy connection
  • ATA (IDE) disk drive primary connection
  • 24-pin ATX power Supply connector
  • Serial ATA connections
  • Coin cell battery (CMOS backup battery)
  • RAID
  • System panel connectors
  • FWH
  • Southbridge
  • Serial port connector
  • USB headers
  • Jumpers
  • Integrated circuit
  • 1394 headers
  • CD-IN

Other motherboard components

Below is a listing of other motherboard components that are not shown in the picture above or were part of older computer motherboards.

  • BIOS
  • Bus
  • Cache memory
  • Chipset
  • Diode
  • Dip switches
  • Electrolytic
  • Fuse
  • Game port and MIDI header
  • Internal speaker
  • Keyboard controller
  • LCC
  • Network header
  • Obsolete expansion slots (AMR, CNR, EISA, ISA, VESA)
  • Obsolete memory slots (SIMM)
  • Onboard LED
  • Parallel port header
  • PS/2 header
  • Resistor
  • RTC
  • Serial port header
  • Screw hole aka mounting hole
  • SCSI
  • Solenoid
  • Voltage regulator
  • Voltage regulator module (VRM)

    What was the first motherboard?

    The first motherboard was consider to be used in the IBM Personal Computer, that released in 1981. At the time, IBM referred to it as a “planar” instead of a motherboard. The IBM Personal Computer and the motherboard inside it would set the standard for IBM-compatible computer hardware going forward.


How to Design MOTHERBOARD?

A motherboard pass the electrical connections by which helps the other components of the system communicate. Unlike a backbone, it also contains the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices.

A desktop computer has its microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables; in modern microcomputers it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself.

An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor’s supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces between the CPU and the various buses and external components. This chip set determines, to an extent, the features and capabilities of the motherboard.

How to replace your pc motherboard?

Replacing a PC’s motherboard will takes time, especially if you’ve never done it before. You could trip on any number of little hurdles during the motherboard removal and installation process.

Why we need to replace it?

It happens because sometimes components fail. Motherboards are no exception. I’ve fried many a motherboard thanks to bad BIOS flashes and failing of power supplies. Things happen, and sometimes those things can irreparably damage your motherboard.

But troubleshooting or  replacing a motherboard is a lot of work. Before you start, you want to make very, very sure that your motherboard is not working.. Step one is using one of these handy troubleshooting flowchart to make sure your motherboard is truly the culprit. Assuming your motherboard is confirmed dead, it’s time to consider a replacement.

What to look for in a new motherboard

There are many motherboard manufacturers companies, but only two CPU vendors. The CPU is the core of your PC and so it follows that you need to select a motherboard that is compatible with your CPU, be it from Intel or AMD. Afterthat, make sure the motherboard you chose is compatible with your current (or new) processor. Both companies have multiple different processor sockets for their chips. For example, if you have one of AMD’s recent APUs, you’ll want to buy a socket FM2+ motherboard. Conduct a Google search for your specific processor’s socket type, then look for motherboards built around that socket. Next step is to check board’s size is the next consideration. This decision will be largely dictated by how big of a motherboard your computer case can accept. Moreover, is to decide on a brand of motherboard. Nowadays, motherboards are more alike than they are different. You should not expect to see major differences in performance, power consumption, or overclocking between similarly priced motherboards from different vendors. They do however differ in color scheme, I/O capabilities, and expansion slot layouts.

How to install a new motherboard in your PC

  • Once you’ve selected a motherboard and have it in hand now it’s time to install it. But before we get into that remove’s your old motherboard.
  • Start by powering down and disconnecting any cables attached to your PC, then open up the side of your computer’s case so that you can access the motherboard. You should have a record of everything that needs to be plugged in before you start disconnecting them.
  • The big items like graphics cards and Wi-Fi cards can come out of your motherboard first. Then go for SATA or other interface cables that connect your SSD, hard drive, or optical media drive to your motherboard.
  • Finally, it’s time to disconnect all of the power cabling plugged into your motherboard. On most motherboards there will be a smaller 8-pin CPU power connector near the top of the motherboard, and a much larger 24-pin ATX power connector near the middle of the left side of the motherboard. You need to unhook both of these connectors.
  • It’s time to break out head screwdriver and remove the screws holding the old motherboard to the mounting points in your PC’s case. Save the screws—you’re going to need them again later.
  • Your motherboard should now be freely floating in your case—pull it out. With the old motherboard free, you’ll need to remove its CPU cooler, CPU, and RAM so you can install it into your new motherboard. Be careful! Don’t force anything and accidentally break your pricey hardware.
  • Once that’s done, it’s time to get your new motherboard in your PC. You pretty much just have to replace everything you just pulled out of your old motherboard.
  • Install the CPU, CPU cooler, and RAM in your new motherboard, insert your motherboard’s I/O shield in the rear of your case, then place the motherboard into your empty case.
  • Be sure to use your motherboard’s standoff screws so it doesn’t directly touch the case wall. If you forget to use your standoffs, you risk frying the motherboard when you power up your PC. (Some computer cases come with raised mounting points preinstalled.)
  • Reuse the screws that held your old motherboard in place to secure your new motherboard. Follow this up by reconnecting the two power connectors (24-pin and 8-pin) that you removed earlier. Now plug the SATA cables back in and slot your expansion cards back into place. Double-check that all of the internal cables in your PC are connected correctly and that everything is seated firmly in place. Reconnect all of the external cables that were connected to your PC before you took it apart, and power it on.
  •  Your PC will probably reboot a couple of times as the motherboard adjusts to its new life. Then everything should be back to normal. If you run into problems getting your computer to boot properly after you’ve replaced your motherboard, contact your motherboard manufacturer or ask for help on one of the many computer building forums around the web.

    With a new motherboard your PC should be as good as new—and hopefully a bit more stylish to boot.

At the last, I choose this topic because in few days i am going to change my friend motherboard and i will help him to do that. So i did research on how to replace motherboard and now i am pretty much sure that i can replace his pc’s motherboard. This is my second and last post for this session because i forgot to post my blog for last week. So i post two blog.







Software piracy

1.Identify the problem :

at the begnining, what is piracy? and what is software piracy?

Piracy : According to me, piracy means stolling something thing which is not us and which is not free to download in technology bases.

Software piracy: Software piracy is the illegal copying, distribution, or use of software.The majority of software today is purchased as a one-site license, meaning that the software purchased should be installed only in one computer at one time. Copying that software to multiple computers without multiple licenses is considered software piracy, which is illegal.Moreover, It is such a profitable “business” that it has caught the attention of organized crime groups in a number of countries. According to the Business Software Alliance (BSA), about 36% of all software in current use is stolen. Software piracy causes significant lost revenue for publishers, which in turn results in higher prices for the consumer.

I think these following are some reasons for software piracy:

1. Poor Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement

2. Insufficient Buying Power

3. Uniform Pricing Regardless of Location

4. Expanded Global Internet Access

5. Support for Local Business

6. Quick Profits

7. More Equal Economic Footing

2. Design a solution :

a. What kind of software may need to secure?

b.Secure from customer or employee of company?

c.For how long want to secure?

3. Build the solution :

There are several way to stop this problem and some of Software publishers have several options to protect their intellectual property from thieves. .

a. The most widely used method is the license key

b.SmartFlow Compliance Solutions : is launching an innovative solution designed to help companies combat intellectual property theft and establish effective in-house compliance programs.

c.Develop a clear software policy statement for your company.

d.Require employees to sign an anti-piracy statement.

e.Require regular software inventories. Make sure your staff records the product name, version number, and serial number for each piece of software installed on every computer.

f.Know what your software licenses allow. Keep all your licenses in one place and identify which licenses allow home use by employees and which do not. Also, compare the inventory to your license agreements and delete any illegal software.

4. Evaluate the solution : In today era, Software piracy incrrease day by day an it is very tough to stop which cause many difficulties for software companies. So, companies looking for solution to stop piracy and i suggest some solution above and might be helpful for them .

5.Report:Before this, I did someother topic so this is my new and intresting topic. I thought it because now days evey compies facing this problem and this problem rises day by day.

Res 701- “Database”

What is databse?

A databse is a collection of data that is organized so  that it can esily be accessed, managed and updated. Moreover, it can be classified types of content like bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images.

It is the collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and othet objects.


What is a database management system (DBMS) : is a computer software application that hel[p user to interects,  other application and the database itself to capture and analyze data. the main pur[ose of DBMS is designed to allow the defination, creation, querying, update, and administrator of databaeses. This DBMS include MYSQL,POSTGRESQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle and IBM DB2.

It allows the interface between user and databases and also gives provosion by using software application to analyze the data.The general purpose of DBMS are: Defining, creating, quering, updating and administartion of database.It provides various functions like entry, storage and retrieval of huge amount of information and gives ways to manage how that information is organized.

“Databases and DBMS can be categorized according to the database model(s) that they support(such as relational or XML), the type of computer they run on, the query languages used to access the database and their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability, resilience, and security.

Reserach :

“Database technology has been an active reserach topic since the 1960s, both in academic and in the research and development groups of companies. Research activity includes theory and development of prototypes. Notable research topics have included models, the atomic transaction concept, and related concurrency control techniques, query languages and query optimization methods and RAID”.

Design and modeling:

The first task of a database designer is to make a conceptual data model that shows the structure of the information to be held in the database. The main approach to this is to design an entity-relationship model and Unified Modeling language. Creating the conceptual data model involves some basis things like input from business process, or the analysis of workflow








Academic paper Practice(Res701)

Apa reference:

Dr. Aanchal, Ms. Natasha Goel, M. (2016), Technology Mediated Classroom Communication: Enhancing Inclusion in the Teaching Learning Process, European Journal of Academic Essays 3(4):151-155, 2016


Brief Summary


                                            Technology used for education

This researched is done by Dr. Aanchal, Ms. Natasha Goel which focuses on contributions made by technology in the field of education. Technology has played a great role in the advancement of human beings in every field. Even in the field of education technology plays a vital role nowadays. Technology has become integrated in inclusive classroom in many different ways. Using technological tools has helped the educators to make better use of instructional material and made learning for students very innovative and different which is necessary in this modern era. It has become a major component of communication even for differently abled students.

The students a use different hardware and software to interact with the class and help the teacher in delivering instructional material efficiently. In a classroom where technology is used as medium there is sender, receiver, content. It can be in any form through which it can be mediated like computer, internet, audio, video, etc to facilitate the technology in creating interactive teaching. There are four components of technology mediated classroom communication. They are student, teacher, planned lesson, and technological tools. The student is the center process of learning. The teacher is the provider of knowledge foe the students. Lessons must be planned before they are presented. There has to be technological tools to mediate the learning process. The various means of technology mediated classroom are radio, television, educational films, projector, e-mail, social network, computer, laptops, internet, smart board, puzzle maker, brain boosters, blogs, and video conferencing. To access the technology students, need to access the devices like switches, keyboard, mobile phones, laptop, mouse. If they don’t have access to such devices then technology is useless. The students who are disabled or any problems may benefit from using a wide variety of communication devices. Technology can be used to help these students by increasing the contrast, enlarging stimuli and making use of tactile and auditory modes. It can also be used to present content in many different languages for students for whom English is a second language. Students with mobility impairments may need wheelchairs, self-propelled walkers, or recreational vehicles like bikes or scooters. Recreation is an important part of a students daily school life as it promotes opportunity for extra instruction and support. Paraprofessionals commonly assist with tasks such as:

  • Leading small group instructions designed by the teacher.
  • Collecting material.
  • Providing assistance for personal care and other physical needs.
  • Assisting students to complete the assigned task given by the teacher.
  • Facilitating communication between the students.
  • Adapting lessons under the teachers guidance and,
  • Executing in the inclusive classroom environment.

Technology is not the end in education it is just a tool and therefore cannot replace the teacher. It may help the tutor for providing a better and effective lessons to the students. With the advancement in the field of technology, the role of the teacher has changed from that of a dispenser of knowledge to a facilitator and a guide. Thus technology can be used  in classroom settings creating an innovative environment through different technological tools.


  1. The title for this academic paper is “Technology used for education”. This title tells me a lot of things like, what is technology? How technology works and how is technology used in our studies. I choose this title because my review is all about technology and studies. In this modern era technology plays an important role in our daily life like technology is used in our home as well as our school and furthermore. Mainly technology is used in schools and universities as I discussed before and that’s how I got the idea to choose this title. The main thing is we use it everyday in our life and technology has brought a great change in the field of education and the method of interaction between the teacher and the student.
  2. The paper is written by Dr Aanchal and Mrs Natasha Goel. Dr Aanchal and Mrs Natasha Goel are the assistant Professor in Gitarattan Institute of advanced studies and training. This article was published on European Journal of Academic Essays 3(4):151-155,2016.

ISSN (online):2183-1904


3.Yes, the abstract is helpful as it gives us the general idea of the title. It includes all the      important contents which further describes the topic in details below. After reading the abstract the reader can easily understand what the topic is about and the writer has also highlighted the important things in the abstract which helps abstract to be strong and effective.

4.The main thing the author is trying to show us is that technology is a part of social and academic lives of the students all across the world. The article has made the significance of using modern technology in classes is far useful than following the traditional ways. Technological tools help the educators to make better use of instructional material and also help students to improve their technological skills and better understanding within the context of the regular curriculum. The author has made the article very simple and easy to understand even for the general people to understand. He has paraphrased his research and also used bullet list and tabular format to make it more effective and important. He has given specific title for each paragraph which is related to the subject matter. The English is very simple and easy to understand even for a beginner and who is not aware or familiar with technology. The length of the article is medium which makes it more readable and which makes user to get the needed focus on the article. He also used some table diagram related to the components of technology mediated classroom communication which is very effective for the user to get to know about the topic. The author has observed the difference between interaction of students in the class with and without technology. The author has shown us clearly that communication in the classroom using modern technologies such as laptops, computers, projectors the quality of education is much more effective and indulging.

5.The author has used observational method for this article. Yes, the methods they used were appropriate because this topic is practical and thus there is no better way to carry out the research effectively than to observe the behavior of the classroom with or without technology. The author has observed the benefits of using technology in the class for interaction between the teacher and the student. They have found out that it is much easier for understanding the subject matter and carrying out assignments and projects given by the teacher to solve them using technological methods. The author has observed the difference between a normal classroom and an inclusive classroom. The article has made clear that students have different learning styles, and teachers will teach using verbal cues, visual information, such as videos and pictures, music and other technological devices.

6.The use of technology in different ways ensures that the promotion of shared working benefits for both the student and the teacher, including space and resources, the promotion of collaborative learning and the new ways of teaching and learning. Technology makes the classroom communication universal and promotes the creation of the constructive classroom. Technology can be classroom settings creating an innovative environment through smart boards, tablets, computers, internet and educational software. In this generation of teaching and learning the role of a teacher has changed from the dispenser of knowledge to the facilitator and manager in the classroom.

7.Yes, the paper was more than worth reading because this is an academic paper reviewed by the authors who belong to qualified universities and have great knowledge related to the field. This article contain information about technology and the classroom interaction. Furthermore, I personally think education using technology in the classroom is a great way of teaching and learning which makes students to give more focus to their studies as it makes the subject matter more interesting because of digital devices such as switches, keyboard, laptops which is different from holding a pen and paper to note down something and monotonous. I like many things in this article such as various ways of technology mediated classroom communication which includes blogs, e-mail, and puzzle maker which helps to show their ability to others with the help of writing blogs and e-mails. Through this they can communicate with their tutor as well as their class fellows and I think this is a modern way of communicating with others that makes me to choose this article as worth reading.

8.Yes, I believe the results and finding on the paper as it was written by qualified and educated professors from a well renowned university. The authors have done deep research in this topic and are well known for their achievements in this field. Due to the progress they made in their research this article is referred quite often by the students through the internet.

9.I learned that technology plays a major role in this modern era as it makes our daily life much easier and comfortable. The method of interacting with the subject matter becomes much more interesting and interactive as the students have to indulge with their subject practically and doing something practically is much more effective than just writing theories and hypothesis. Students who use modern electronic devices are much more independent than those who don’t and they have to ability to work through any kind of problems practically. They even intend to have more knowledge about many other thing as they as frequently connected to the outer world and are pretty well informed about what is happening around them if they choose to do so. Personally I think it is very vital for students such as me to become more independent in their studies to be more creative and thus more effective. Keeping teachers as their guide for their studies students can keep moving forward in their own way and achieve their goals and dreams.








Virtualization technology

  • For my blog post : I looked up those following website and i found many interesting things to know .

  • Usually i use same keyword related to the research and for this i used virtualization technology
  • I found it on google where i found those website links.
  • By Sara Angeles, Business  News Daily Staff Writer for the first link and it was written on January 20, 2014
  • For the second, Second is Wikipedia.
  • About the last one, I tried to find the writer but i couldn’t.


For the video :

Digital citizenship (Res701)

  • URL for Article

For Article purpose :

  • URL for Blog

  • URL for video
  • The search terms I used are digital citizenship articles and digital citizenship on google
  • I found it on google
  • Stephen Noonoo wrote the article .
  • And it was publish on 05/07/14.
  • I found every kind of source and i added each and everyone with the link.
  • I found it credible because Digital citizenship can be defined as the norms of appropriate, responsible behavior with regard to technology use which helps people understand what students/children/technology users should know to use technology appropriate.

Digital Literacy (Res701)

The Digital Literacy is to teach and how to assess basic computer concepts and skills so that people can use computer technology in everyday life to develop new social and economic opportunities for themselves, their families, and their communities.Whether you are new to computing or without having experience, this curriculum will help us to develop a fundamental understanding of computers. From using the Internet to sending email or creating a resume, the Digital Literacy Curriculum helps us develop the essential skills you need to begin computing with confidence.

Use in education

Schools are continuously updating their curriculum for digital literacy to keep up with accelerating technological developments. This often includes computers in the classroom, the use of educational software to teach curriculum, and course materials being made available to students online. Some classrooms are designed to use smart boards and audience response systems. These techniques are most effective when the teacher is digitally literate as well.

Teachers often teach digital literacy skills to students who use computers for research. Such skills include verifying credible sources online and how-to cite web sites. Google and Wikipedia are used by students “for everyday life research.

Educators are often required to be certified in digital literacy to teach certain software and, more prevalent, to prevent plagiarism among students.

Social networking

With the emergence of social networking, one who is digitally literate now has a major voice online. The level of digital literacy needed to voice an opinion online today compared to the Internet before social networks is minute. Websites like Facebook and Twitter, as well as personal websites and blogs have enabled a new type of journalism that is subjective, personal, and “represents a global conversation that is connected through its community of readers. These online communities foster group interactivity among the digitally literate. Social networks also help users establish a digital identity, or a “symbolic digital representation of identity attributes. Without digital literacy or the assistance of someone who is digitally literate, one cannot possess a personal digital identity. This is closely allied to Web Literacy.

a) and
b) I found it on google. I searched on google directly as Digital literacy
c) I couldn’t find out the date of this statement.
d)This evidence is blog post .

e) I found it on Microsoft official website where name is not mentioned and i think this was published by Microsoft company.Along , if i talk about next link then that link pointed to Wikipedia and there is no name as well .
f)From an academic perspective, digital literacy is a part of the computing subject area, alongside computer science and information technology.
g)According to me, this is credible because digital literate person will possess a range of digital skills and by this skills, every person can use and do a lot of things.


What is Wireless?

Wireless is used to define the term telecommunication in which electromagnetic waves carry the signal over part.Some of the the wirelesss devices which classified as a wireless are :monitoring devices, such as intrusion alarms, employ acoustic waves at frequencies above the range of human hearing.In the early 20th century,The first wireless transmitters went on the air using radiotelegraphy (Morse code).Later, as modulation made it possible to transmit voices and music via wireless, the medium came to be called “radio.” The trem “wireless” has been resurrected With the advent of television, fax, data communication, and the effective use of a larger portion of the spectrum.
Some of the examples of wireless equipment in use today’s era is:
Cellular phones and pagers — provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business
•Global Positioning System (GPS) — allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth
•Cordless computer peripherals — the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless
•Cordless telephone sets — these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones
•Home-entertainment-system control boxes — the VCR control and the TV channel control are the most common examples; some hi-fi sound systems and FM broadcast receivers also use this technology
•Remote garage-door openers — one of the oldest wireless devices in common use by consumers; usually operates at radio frequencies
•Two-way radios — this includes Amateur and Citizens Radio Service, as well as business, marine, and military communications
•Baby monitors — these devices are simplified radio transmitter/receiver units with limited range
•Satellite television — allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of channels
•Wireless LANs or local area networks — provide flexibility and reliability for business computer users.
Wireless technoogy is rapidly increasing and is playing a important role in today lives of people in all over the world. Hence more, every people depends on technology directlr or indirectly.More specialized and exotic examples of wireless communications and control include:
•Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) — a digital mobile telephone system used in Europe and other parts of the world; the de facto wireless telephone standard in Europe
•General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) — a packet-based wireless communication service that provides continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users
•Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) — a faster version of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) wireless service
•Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) — a broadband, packet-based system offering a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users no matter where they are located in the world
•Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) — a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular telephones and radio transceivers, can be used for Internet access
•i-Mode — the world’s first “smart phone” for Web browsing, first introduced in Japan; provides color and video over telephone sets
Wireless can be divided into:
•Fixed wireless — the operation of wireless devices or systems in homes and offices, and in particular, equipment connected to the Internet via specialized modems
•Mobile wireless — the use of wireless devices or systems aboard motorized, moving vehicles; examples include the automotive cell phone and PCS (personal communications services)
•Portable wireless — the operation of autonomous, battery-powered wireless devices or systems outside the office, home, or vehicle; examples include handheld cell phones and PCS units
•IR wireless — the use of devices that convey data via IR (infrared) radiation; employed in certain limited-range communications and control systems
Wireless communication has the following advantages:
i.      Communication has enhanced to convey the information quickly to the consumers.
ii.        Working professionals can work and access Internet anywhere and anytime without carrying cables or wires wherever they go. This also helps to complete the work anywhere on time and improves the productivity.
iii.       Doctors, workers and other professionals working in remote areas can be in touch with medical centres through wireless communication.
iv.       Urgent situation can be alerted through wireless communication. The affected regions can be provided help and support with the help of these alerts through wireless communication.
v.         Wireless networks are cheaper to install and maintain.
The growth of wireless network has enabled us to use personal devices anywhere and anytime. This has helped mankind to improve in every field of life but this has led many threats as well.
Wireless network has led to many security threats to mankind. It is very easy for the hackers to grab the wireless signals that are spread in the air. It is very important to secure the wireless network so that the information cannot be exploited by the unauthorized users. This also increases the risk to lose information. Strong security protocols must be created to secure the wireless signals like WPA and WPA2. Another way to secure the wireless network is to have wireless intrusion prevention system.




There is a great role of Wifi in the IT company. If there is no wifi , then there will be great loss in the IT industry and LAN wire cant reach everyplace and it will be too expensive to depend upon a LAN wire in some area. We can take  examples of wifi freezones where people use internet for free and can check for important updates. If there was no wifi, this idea wouldn’t have been possible.


Argumentative Research

What is it ? (what do you mean by it ???)
What IS an argument? An argument, in philosophy, is a claim that is backed by reasons.  Argumentative research is the combining study to reach to conclusion through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises. Argumentative includes the arts of civil debates, dialogue, conversation and  negotiation. It also be an evidentiary objection arise in response to a question  and An argumentative objection is often stated as “Objection, your honor, argumentative”.
It is also round combative dialog, branch of social debate in which victory over an opponent is the primary goal.
What kinds of questions/problems might it be useful for?
  • Understanding and identifying arguments, either explicit or implied, and the goals of the participants in the different types of dialogue.
  • Identifying the premises from which conclusions are derived
  • Establishing the “burden of proof” – determining who made the initial claim and is thus responsible for providing evidence why his/her position merits acceptance.
  •   Pick a topic you feel strongly about. It doesn’t matter whether you agree with it, or disagree with it. Think of points on both sides of the issue – the pros and the cons of each topic.
    List some arguments from both sides and then think about how your audience feels about each of these.
    Pick whichever side has the most convincing information – you might have to change your mind and change your main idea as you discover facts that you were not aware of as you started thinking about the topic.

How could it be used in IT research  (try to think of an example)?
As we know that argumentative research has pros and cons.And According to me Argumentative pros has more than cons because IT fields runs on the bases of different research and conclusion. Like others, IT also consists of different field people and every one have to share their opinion to others what they feel or know which may cause arguments regarding them. Furthermore, With the arguments they can find the most suitable feedback. For instance, Developer did coding for their relevant field and another developer did coding regarding their relevant field. As we know that, One software is made up of different  coding like user interface(front end), Database(middle) and  user interface (back end). We need to combine all coding to make a running software. For that , All developer need to communicate with each other and which may cause arguments between them. According to me , it is useful and  help to make a good and running software.



What are the strengths of the approach?

1. Shows what position a person holds
2. Allows others to present their point of view
3. Helps arguers reach and understand new views and reasons for those views
4. Does not stomp on people.

What are the weaknesses of the approach?

There are various kind of weakness of this approach  and I listed few of them below:

  • Some times the information is not enough to do arguments as compared to opponents .
  • It may also cause because of not relevant topics like out of topic , talking to much but fail to convey message.

In the nutshell, Argumentative is good and it has many pros as well cons but doing argument also not good in some field. We have to thing a lot before argument  which help to win.



Definition of security:

A security is the state of being free from danger or threat. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, item, nation, or organization. Security have two dialogues. Negative dialogue is about danger, risk, threat etc. Positive dialogue is about opportunities, interests, profits etc. Negative dialogue needs military equipment, armies, or police. Positive dialogue needs social capital, education, or social interaction.
The most basic definition of any security system is found in its name. It is literally a means or method by which something is secured through a system of interworking components and devices.
Categorizing security:
There are several security for this era. Some are describe here:
  • IT realm
  • Physical realm
  • Political
  • Monetary

IT realm consists of

  • Computer security
  • Internet security
  • Application security
  • Data security
  • Information security
  • Network security
  • Endpoint security

Physical realm includes:

  • Airport security
  • Aviation security
  • Communication security
  • Corporate security
  • Food security
  • Home security
  • Infrastructure security
  • Physical security
  • Port security
  • Private security
  • School security
  • Shopping security
  • Transportation security

Political Consists of :

  • National security
  • Public security
  • Homeland security
  • Internal security
  • State security
  • International security
  • Human security
And Monetary:
  • Economic security
  • Financial security
  • Social security



Computer system, also known as  IT security and we can apply  security to certain physical devices or computing devices such as computer and smartphones, as well as computer system, such as private and public networks, including the whole internet. The field consists of  all five components: hardware, software, data, people, and procedures by which digital equipment, information and services are protected from unauthorized access, change, and is of growing importance due to the increasing reliance of computer systems in most societies. It includes physical security to prevent theft of equipment and information security to protect the data on that equipment. Those terms do not point out to physical security, but a common belief among computer security experts is that a physical security breach is one of the worst kinds of security breaches as it generally allows full access to both data and equipment.


Computer Security is concerned with four main areas:

1. Confidentiality:- Only authorized users can access the data resources and information.
2. Integrity:- Only authorized users should be able to modify the data when needed.
3. Availability:- Data should be available to users when needed.
4. Authentication:- are you really communicating with whom you think you are communicating with

Moreover, the phrase computer security  refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a system cannot be read by any individuals without authorization. Most of the computer security measures involve data encryption  and passwords. Meaning of Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unable to understand  without a converting machinery the code in machine. A password is a secret word that gives a user to access to a particular program.

Why is computer security so important?

Computer Security allows the University to carry out its mission by:

  • Enabling people to carry out their jobs, education, and research
  • Supporting critical business process
  • Protecting personal and sensitive information

What Does This Mean for Me?

  • This means that everyone who uses a computer or mobile device needs to understand how to keep their computer, device and data secure.
    • –> Information Technology Security is everyone’s responsibility!
  • Members of the UCSC community are also responsible for familiarizing themselves and complying with all University policies, procedures and standards relating to information security.

Deterrents to maintaining safety and measures that can be taken to prevent intrusion:-

The most widely used attacks against a computer system are Trojans/trapdoors, worms, social networking and eavesdropping (aka man-in-the-middle attack.) Also popular are DoS/DDoS attacks, which can be used to disrupt services. Often insiders i.e. authorized users are generally directly involved in data theft and misuse too. If proper measures are taken such attacks can largely be prevented (e.g. through different levels of access, or by limiting physical access).

Measures include installing legally purchased software, as they are generally free from such Trojans or viruses, using good anti-virus solutions with properly defined system rules. Hardware and software firewalls help in blocking unauthorized users from accessing your computer. Using a large complex password comprising of several special characters, numbers and alphabets helps in making it largely impossible for a hacker to crack your account easily. Also being careful against social engineering to get your details can help. There have been many such examples of such lapses on user side in which they reveal their passwords to strangers or log on to important sites from unsafe computers resulting in data theft or loss.
Cryptography (especially encryption) plays an important role in keeping our sensitive information safe and secret. (For further information, check my presentation slides.)